ὁ μέντοι Τισσαφέρνης ταῦτα μὲν ἐνόμισε λέγειν αὐτὸν πάλιν βουλόμενον ἐξαπατῆσαι,
However Tissaphernes thought that he (A.) was saying this (because) he again wanted to deceive him,
εἰς Καρίαν δὲ νῦν τῷ ὄντι ἐμβαλεῖν,
and now really (τῷ ὄντι ) would invade Caria,
καὶ τό τε πεζὸν καθάπερ τὸ πρόσθεν εἰς Καρίαν διεβίβασε
and his infantry just as before he sent across into Caria
καὶ τὸ ἱππικὸν εἰς τὸ Μαιάνδρου πεδίον κατέστησεν.
and his cavalry stationed in the Maiandros plain.
ὁ δ᾽ Ἀγησίλαος οὐκ ἐψεύσατο,
Agesilaos was not deceving,
ἀλλ᾽ ὥσπερ προεῖπεν εὐθὺς εἰς τὸν Σαρδιανὸν τόπον ἐνέβαλε.
but just as he announced, immediately moved into the land (around) Sardia.
καὶ τρεῖς μὲν ἡμέρας δι᾽ ἐρημίας πολεμίων πορευόμενος πολλὰ τὰ ἐπιτήδεια τῇ στρατιᾷ εἶχε,
and for three days traveling through (territory) devoid of the enemy, had many provisions for the army,
τῇ δὲ τετάρτῃ ἧκον οἱ τῶν πολεμίων ἱππεῖς.
but on the fourth (day) the enemy cavalry came up.
 καὶ τῷ μὲν ἄρχοντι τῶν σκευοφόρων εἶπε διαβάντι τὸν Πακτωλὸν ποταμὸν στρατοπεδεύεσθαι,
And he (A.) told the leader of the baggage-train to cross the Pactolus river (and) pitch camp,
αὐτοὶ δὲ κατιδόντες τοὺς τῶν Ἑλλήνων ἀκολούθους ἐσπαρμένους εἰς ἁρπαγὴν πολλοὺς αὐτῶν ἀπέκτειναν.
but they (Persian cavalry), seeing the Greek camp-followers (ἀκολούθους) scattering for plunder, killed many of them.
αἰσθόμενος δὲ Ἀγησίλαος, βοηθεῖν ἐκέλευσε τοὺς ἱππέας.
Seeing this, Agesilaos ordered his cavalry to help them.
οἱ δ᾽ αὖ Πέρσαι ὡς εἶδον τὴν βοήθειαν,
And the Persians, seeing the rescue,
ἡθροίσθησαν καὶ ἀντιπαρετάξαντο παμπλήθεσι τῶν ἱππέων τάξεσιν.
gathered and formed up a large number of their cavalry units.
 ἔνθα δὴ ὁ Ἀγησίλαος γιγνώσκων ὅτι τοῖς μὲν πολεμίοις οὔπω παρείη τὸ πεζόν,
Then/when Agesilaos realizing that the infantry of the enemy was not yet at hand,
αὐτῷ δὲ οὐδὲν ἀπείη τῶν παρεσκευασμένων,
but of his own, not one was missing from his army,
(Another typical use of μὲν / δὲ. τοῖς μὲν πολεμίοις is in the dative, “of the enemy.” So, the first thought pertains to something ‘of the enemy.’ Ah … the enemy’s infantry is not present. Now αὐτῷ δὲ .. “of his own” also in the dative case. So, we know that, because of the parallelism of / μὲνδὲ, that second phrase (αὐτῷ δὲ οὐδὲν ἀπείη τῶν παρεσκευασμένων) refers to Agesilaos’ own infantry. Putting it together, the reader knows that 1) the Persian infantry is absent, 2) Agesilaos’ infantry is present … so …)
καιρὸν ἡγήσατο μάχην συνάψαι, εἰ δύναιτο.
he believed (this was) the opportune moment (καιρὸν) to join battle (μάχην συνάψαι), if he could.
σφαγιασάμενος οὖν τὴν μὲν φάλαγγα εὐθὺς ἦγεν ἐπὶ τοὺς παρατεταγμένους ἱππέας,
Thus sacrificing, he immediately led his phalanx against the cavalry formation,
ἐκ δὲ τῶν ὁπλιτῶν ἐκέλευσε τὰ δέκα ἀφ᾽ ἥβης θεῖν ὁμόσε αὐτοῖς,
and he ordered the younger men (τὰ δέκα ἀφ᾽ ἥβης – the decade since coming-of-age) of the hoplites to run to close quarters with the enemy,
τοῖς δὲ πελτασταῖς εἶπε δρόμῳ ὑφηγεῖσθαι.
and he told the peltasts to lead on at a run.
παρήγγειλε δὲ καὶ τοῖς ἱππεῦσιν ἐμβάλλειν,
And he also passed the word for the cavalry to attack,
ὡς αὐτοῦ τε καὶ παντὸς τοῦ στρατεύματος ἑπομένου.
in the assurance that (ὡς) he and the entire army followed.
 τοὺς μὲν δὴ ἱππέας ἐδέξαντο οἱ Πέρσαι:
While the Persians withstood the cavalry:
ἐπεὶ δ᾽ ἅμα πάντα τὰ δεινὰ παρῆν, ἐνέκλιναν,
but as soon as the full force came up, they gave way,
καὶ οἱ μὲν αὐτῶν εὐθὺς ἐν τῷ ποταμῷ ἔπεσον, οἱ δ᾽ ἄλλοι ἔφευγον.
and some of them were immediately struck down in the river, and the rest fled.
οἱ δ᾽ Ἕλληνες ἐπακολουθοῦντες αἱροῦσι καὶ τὸ στρατόπεδον αὐτῶν.
The Greeks, following hard upon, also took their camp.
καὶ οἱ μὲν πελτασταί, ὥσπερ εἰκός, εἰς ἁρπαγὴν ἐτράποντο:
And the peltasts, as might be expected, turned to looting:
ὁ δ᾽ Ἀγησίλαος κύκλῳ πάντα καὶ φίλια καὶ πολέμια περιεστρατοπεδεύσατο.
But Agesilaos encamped in a circle both friends and foes.
(to prevent unauthorized looting by the peltasts)
καὶ ἄλλα τε πολλὰ χρήματα ἐλήφθη,
And while much other property was captured,
ἃ ηὗρε πλέον ἢ ἑβδομήκοντα τάλαντα,
which fetched more than seventy talents,
καὶ αἱ κάμηλοι δὲ τότε ἐλήφθησαν,
at this time the camels were also taken,
ἃς Ἀγησίλαος εἰς τὴν Ἑλλάδα ἀπήγαγεν.
which Agesilaos brought back to Greece.