Hellenica excerpt, IV.ii.18-23 – The Battle of Nemea

[18] αὕτη μὲν δὴ ἑκατέρων ἡ δύναμις ἐγένετο.
This then was the force of each of them [Sparta with her allies, against Athens, Thebes, Corinth, and their allies].

οἱ δὲ Βοιωτοὶ ἕως μὲν τὸ εὐώνυμον εἶχον,
The Boeotians, as long as they were having (εἶχον – IMPERF) the left wing,

οὐδέν τι κατήπειγον τὴν μάχην συνάπτειν:
[had] no urgent necessity to engage in battle: (The Lacedaimonians always took the right wing of their line, so the Boeotians didn’t want to engage them.)

ἐπεὶ δὲ οἱ μὲν Ἀθηναῖοι κατὰ Λακεδαιμονίους ἐγένοντο,
but when the Athenians came against the Lacedaimonians,

αὐτοὶ δὲ τὸ δεξιὸν ἔσχον καὶ κατ᾽ Ἀχαιοὺς ἀντετάχθησαν,
they [the Boeotians] themselves, had/took (ἔσχον – AOR) the right, and arrayed against the Achaeans,

εὐθὺς τά τε ἱερὰ καλὰ ἔφασαν εἶναι καὶ παρήγγειλαν παρασκευάζεσθαι ὡς μάχης ἐσομένης.
promptly pronounced the sacrifices to be favorable, and passed the word to prepare for a battle to begin.

καὶ πρῶτον μὲν ἀμελήσαντες τοῦ εἰς ἑκκαίδεκα βαθεῖαν παντελῶς ἐποιήσαντο τὴν φάλαγγα,
And first, neglecting the (agreed-upon?) sixteen-deep formation, formed up a very deep phalanx,

ἔτι δὲ καὶ ἦγον ἐπὶ τὰ δεξιά,
and moreover, they led to the right,

ὅπως ὑπερέχοιεν τῷ κέρατι τῶν πολεμίων:
in order to outflank with their wing the enemy:

οἱ δ᾽ Ἀθηναῖοι, ἵνα μὴ διασπασθείησαν, ἐπηκολούθουν, καίπερ γιγνώσκοντες ὅτι κίνδυνος εἴη κυκλωθῆναι.
the Athenians, so as not to be separated, followed hard upon, even though knowing that there would be a danger of being encircled.

[19] τέως μὲν οὖν οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι οὐκ ᾐσθάνοντο προσιόντων τῶν πολεμίων:
Thus for a while the Lacedaimonians did not perceive the attack of the enemy:

καὶ γὰρ ἦν λάσιον τὸ χωρίον:
because the ground was bushy:

ἐπεὶ δ᾽ ἐπαιάνισαν, τότε δὴ ἔγνωσαν,
but when they sang the paean, then they realized it,

καὶ εὐθὺς ἀντιπαρήγγειλαν ἅπαντας διασκευάζεσθαι ὡς εἰς μάχην.
and immediately passed the order on their side for all to arm themselves for battle.

ἐπεὶ δὲ συνετάχθησαν ὡς ἑκάστους οἱ ξεναγοὶ ἔταξαν,
And when formed up as the commanders assigned them,

παρηγγύησαν μὲν ἀκολουθεῖν τῷ ἡγουμένῳ,
they gave the order to follow the leader,

ἦγον δὲ καὶ οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι ἐπὶ τὰ δεξιά,
and the Lacedaimonians led on the right,

καὶ οὕτω πολὺ ὑπερέτεινον τὸ κέρας,
and thus, greatly extending their wing,

ὥστε τῶν Ἀθηναίων αἱ μὲν ἓξ φυλαὶ κατὰ τοὺς Λακεδαιμονίους ἐγένοντο,
so that of the Athenians, six divisions were against the Lacedaimonians,

αἱ δὲ τέτταρες κατὰ Τεγεάτας.
and four against the Tegeans.

[20] οὐκέτι δὲ στάδιον ἀπεχόντων,
While still a stadion apart,

σφαγιασάμενοι οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι τῇ Ἀγροτέρᾳ,
the Lacedaimonians sacrificing to the Huntress (Artemis),

ὥσπερ νομίζεται, τὴν χίμαιραν,
as was their custom, a she-goat,

ἡγοῦντο ἐπὶ τοὺς ἐναντίους, τὸ ὑπερέχον ἐπικάμψαντες εἰς κύκλωσιν.
they led against those opposite, wheeling around their flank to encircle them.

ἐπεὶ δὲ συνέμειξαν,
When they engaged,

οἱ μὲν ἄλλοι σύμμαχοι πάντες οἱ τῶν Λακεδαιμονίων ἐκρατήθησαν ὑπὸ τῶν ἐναντίων,
all others of the allies of the Lacedaimonians were defeated by those opposite them,

Πελληνεῖς δὲ κατὰ Θεσπιέας γενόμενοι ἐμάχοντό τε καὶ ἐν χώρᾳ ἔπιπτον ἑκατέρων.
But the Pellenians, who were against the Thespians, fought and many fell in their places on both sides.

[21] αὐτοὶ δὲ οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι ὅσον τε κατέσχον τῶν Ἀθηναίων ἐκράτησαν,
The Lacedaimonians themselves defeated that part of the Athenians which they covered,

καὶ κυκλωσάμενοι τῷ ὑπερέχοντι πολλοὺς ἀπέκτειναν αὐτῶν,
and encircling with their overlapping flank killed many of them,

καὶ ἅτε δὴ ἀπαθεῖς ὄντες,
and at that time being unharmed,

συντεταγμένοι ἐπορεύοντο:
proceeded in formation:

καὶ τὰς μὲν τέτταρας φυλὰς τῶν Ἀθηναίων πρὶν ἐκ τῆς διώξεως ἐπαναχωρῆσαι παρῆλθον,
and they passed by four divisions of Athenians before they had returned from the pursuit,

ὥστε οὐκ ἀπέθανον αὐτῶν πλὴν εἴ τις ἐν τῇ συμβολῇ ὑπὸ Τεγεατῶν:
so that they killed none of them except for in attack the Tegeans.

[22] τοῖς δ᾽ Ἀργείοις ἐπιτυγχάνουσιν οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι ἀναχωροῦσι, καὶ μέλλοντος τοῦ πρώτου πολεμάρχου ἐκ τοῦ ἐναντίου συμβάλλειν αὐτοῖς, λέγεται ἄρα τις ἀναβοῆσαι παρεῖναι τοὺς πρώτους. ὡς δὲ τοῦτ᾽ ἐγένετο, παραθέοντας δὴ παίοντες εἰς τὰ γυμνὰ πολλοὺς ἀπέκτειναν αὐτῶν. ἐπελάβοντο δὲ καὶ Κορινθίων ἀναχωρούντων. ἔτι δ᾽ ἐπέτυχον οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι καὶ τῶν Θηβαίων τισὶν ἀναχωροῦσιν ἐκ τῆς διώξεως, καὶ ἀπέκτειναν συχνοὺς αὐτῶν.

[23] τούτων δὲ γενομένων, οἱ ἡττώμενοι τὸ μὲν πρῶτον ἔφευγον πρὸς τὰ τείχη: ἔπειτα δ᾽ εἰρξάντων Κορινθίων πάλιν κατεσκήνησαν εἰς τὸ ἀρχαῖον στρατόπεδον. Λακεδαιμόνιοι δ᾽ αὖ ἐπαναχωρήσαντες, ἔνθα τὸ πρῶτον τοῖς πολεμίοις συνέμειξαν, ἐστήσαντο τροπαῖον. καὶ αὕτη μὲν δὴ ἡ μάχη οὕτως ἐγένετο.